Women Rising: Five Predictions for Women in the 2012 Workplace

In Society 3.0, Dr. Wilen-Daugenti presents a compelling case for how women’s prospects in business are on the rise. Based on her research at Apollo Research Institute, she predicts that in 2012, women in the workplace will reach the following milestones:

1. More women will become leaders in the workplace.

In 2012, 18 women will be running Fortune 500 companies—the highest number yet. This confirms a rising trend of women’s corporate leadership. The U.S. Government Accountability Office reported that in 2009, 40% of managers in the workforce were women. In 2010, women held 15.7% of board seats at Fortune 500 companies.

2. Women-owned firms will drive job creation and employment.

Women business owners employ 35% more people than all the Fortune 500 companies combined. Women own 10.1 million U.S. firms, employing more than 13 million people and generating $1.9 trillion in sales as of 2008.

3. Women will obtain higher education in greater numbers.

Women now earn more degrees than men, with graduates from all ethnic, racial, and socioeconomic groups racing past men in rates of completing programs of study. Women aged 25 to 34 are more likely to have a college degree and are more likely than men to go to graduate school. By 2012, women are expected to earn 60% of bachelor’s degrees, 63% of master’s degrees, and 54% of doctoral and professional degrees.

Link to entire article: Women Rising

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The End of Men


HELEN REDDY PROCLAIMED, "I am woman, hear me roar. In numbers too big to ignore," back in the early 1970s. Today, those words are coming true in education, the workplace, and on Wall Street.

In an article titled, "The End of Men" in the July/August 2010 issue of Atlantic Magazine, author Hanna Rosin reported some little known statistics about how far women have come in today's society.

-- As of earlier this year, women now outnumber men in the U.S. workforce for the first time ever.
--  Even though women outnumber men in the workforce, three-quarters of the jobs lost in this recession were lost by men.
--  Thirteen of the 15 job categories projected to grow the fastest over the next decade are staffed primarily by women.
--  Women now hold more than 50% of managerial and professional jobs, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics.
--  According to Rosin, women now earn 60% of master’s degrees, about 60% of all bachelor's degrees, about half of all law and medical degrees, and 42% of all MBAs.
--  A 2008 study by researchers at Columbia Business School and the University of Maryland looked at the top 1,500 U.S. companies from 1992 to 2006 and discovered that firms that had women in top positions performed better.

Link to entire article: The End of Men

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Women Will Rule the World
Men were the main victims of the recession. The recovery will be female.

by Jessica Bennett and Jesse Ellison

Newsweek

July 06, 2010

When historians write about the great recession of 2007–08, they may very well have a new name for it: the Mancession. It’s a term already being bandied about in the popular media as business writers chronicle the sad tales of the main victims of the recession: men. They were disproportionately represented in the industries hit hardest during the downturn, including financial services, manufacturing, and construction, and their higher salaries often put them first in the line of fire. Men are the victims of two thirds of the 11 million jobs lost since the recession began in 2007; in August 2009, when U.S. male unemployment stood at 11 percent (versus 8.3 for women), it was the largest unemployment gender gap in the postwar era. Those numbers have improved, a bit—new unemployment figures show men at 9.9 percent and women at 7.8—but not enough to stop Larry Summers, the president’s top economic adviser, from speculating recently, that “when the economy recovers, five years from now, one in six men who are 25 to 54 will not be working.”

If they are lucky, they’ll have wives who can take care of them. American women are already the breadwinners or co-breadwinners in two thirds of American households; in the European Union, women filled 75 percent of the 8 million new jobs created since 2000. Even with the pay gap factored into the equation, economists predict that by 2024, the average woman in the U.S. and a number of rich European countries will outearn the average man. And she’ll be spending that money: as a new book on female economic power, Influence, points out, American women are responsible for 83 percent of all consumer purchases; they hold 89 percent of U.S. bank accounts, 51 percent of all personal wealth, and are worth more than $5 trillion in consumer spending power—larger than the entire Japanese economy. On a global level, women are the biggest emerging market in the history of the planet—more than twice the size of India and China combined. It’s a seismic change, and by all indications it will continue: of the 15 job categories expected to grow the most in the next decade, all but two are filled primarily by women.

Link to entire article: Women will rule the World

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

A Salary Gap Between Men and Women? Oh, Please.

By Penelope Trunk

CBS News

First of all, it's already illegal to pay people based on gender criteria. Second, during this downturn women are doing much better than men in terms of job loss. And third, there simply is no longer a salary gap between men and women.

Yes, you read that correctly. This is not a controversial statement. Or at least it shouldn't be. It was just on the cover of the Economist in an article that asserted at least 15 times that a salary gap in America is gone. And many major U.S. news outlets have reported that women in their 20s are out-earning their male counterparts in large cities, which is not surprising because women are doing better in school than men are.

Link to entire article: A Salary Gap Between Men and Women? Oh, Please

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Women are getting more beautiful

Jonathan Leake, Science Editor

The Sunday Times

July 26, 2009

FOR the female half of the population, it may bring a satisfied smile. Scientists have found that evolution is driving women to become ever more beautiful, while men remain as aesthetically unappealing as their caveman ancestors.
The researchers have found beautiful women have more children than their plainer counterparts and that a higher proportion of those children are female. Those daughters, once adult, also tend to be attractive and so repeat the pattern.

Over generations, the scientists argue, this has led to women becoming steadily more aesthetically pleasing, a “beauty race” that is still on. The findings have emerged from a series of studies of physical attractiveness and its links to reproductive success in humans.

In a study released last week, Markus Jokela, a researcher at the University of Helsinki, found beautiful women had up to 16% more children than their plainer counterparts. He used data gathered in America, in which 1,244 women and 997 men were followed through four decades of life. Their attractiveness was assessed from photographs taken during the study, which also collected data on the number of children they had.

This builds on previous work by Satoshi Kanazawa, an evolutionary psychologist at the London School of Economics, who found that good-looking parents were far more likely to conceive daughters. He suggested this was an evolutionary strategy subtly programmed into human DNA.

He cited two findings from the Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a US government-backed study that is monitoring more than 15,000 Americans. The measurements include objective assessments of physical attractiveness.

One finding was that women were generally regarded by both sexes as more aesthetically appealing than men. The other was that the most attractive parents were 26% less likely to have sons.

Kanazawa said: “Physical attractiveness is a highly heritable trait, which disproportionately increases the reproductive success of daughters much more than that of sons.

“If more attractive parents have more daughters and if physical attractiveness is heritable, it logically follows that women over many generations gradually become more physically attractive on average than men.”

In men, by contrast, good looks appear to count for little, with handsome men being no more successful than others in terms of numbers of children. This means there has been little pressure for men’s appearance to evolve.
The findings coincide with the bicentenary of the birth of Charles Darwin, whose theory of evolution first described the forces that shape all species.

Even he, however, might have been surprised by the subtlety of the effects now being detected by researchers looking into human mating.

The heritability of attractiveness is widely accepted. When Elizabeth Jagger became a model, her mother, the former model Jerry Hall, said: “It’s in her genes.”

Women may take consolation in the finding that men are subject to other types of evolutionary pressure.
Gayle Brewer, a psychology lecturer at the University of Central Lancashire, said: “Men and women seek different things in their partners.

“For women, looks are much less important in a man than his ability to look after her when she is pregnant and nursing, periods when women are vulnerable to predators. Historically this has meant rich men tend to have more wives and many children. So the pressure is on men to be successful.”

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The Superiority of Women

Anonymous Female Author

Back in 1982 Edward C. Whitmont a Jungian psychologists wrote a book called "Return Of The Goddess".  This book was about the returning Goddess archetype and although to my mind a very important book, it was written only for people interested in Jungian psychology.  So unfortunately it was limited in its readership.  So I would like to discuss the return of the Goddess archetype in a more easily understandable form.

A archetype is a powerful emotion that resides in the collective unconsciousness.  A example would be the Hero archetype which in its positive form will push people like soldiers, policemen and firemen to risk their lives to save others.  Though in its negative form will encourage conquerors like Alexander the Great, Napoleon Bonaparte and Hitler to conquer other nations and inflict great suffering onto millions of others for no other reason than to boost the conqueror's personal ego.  The Goddess archetype is feminine counterpart to the Hero archetype and is now returning to consciousness.  Over the last two thousand years the Goddess archetype seemed to have nearly completely disappeared from people's consciousness and only survived in passive forms like the Virgin Mary.  Yet over the last few hundred years it is now starting to return and what is becoming clear is that it is a immensely  powerful archetype.  So powerful is it that it is changing the consciousness of the human race over the last few hundred years.

The first clear manifestation came with the beginnings of the Suffragette movement in the late 19th century.  Though it is now clear it this archetype was affecting people's unconscious mind long before this in preparing the way for female emancipation.  Mary Wollstonecraft wrote her famous book "A Vindication Of The Rights Of Women" back in 1792.  Before such a book could be written without the authoress being burnt at the stake as a Witch. 

As scientists took over the role of the wise men of society they couldn't see why women needed to be oppressed. This allowed women to begin to demand equal rights without the threat of violence from the authorities.  What is surprising about the Feminist movements in the 19th and 20th century is the lack of male opposition.  It only took a small band of Suffragettes demonstrating in the streets at the beginning of the 20th century for exclusively male legislators to pass laws giving women voting rights.  The same thing happened in the 1960s where a small number of Women's Liberation demonstrators forced male dominated legislative chambers pass laws giving equal rights for women.  The lesson of this is that the Goddess archetype is so powerful in our world today, that if Women are willing to organize themselves and stand up for themselves, men will quickly capitulate. Though it has to be admitted that the Goddess archetype seem to be more powerful in the West than in many third world countries.  Though even here we are seeing signs of change.  Women in extremely patriarchal countries like Pakistan and Afghanistan are today risking their lives to bring about change.

The Goddess archetype seem to be affecting men in a very different way, as the Goddess archetype seems to be working through men's sexuality.   Back in the 19th century Leopold Von Sacher-Masoch wrote his famous book "Venus In Furs" and other books of a similar nature. He was basically the first FemDom writer and it was from him the word masochism comes from.  Another writer Sir Henry Rider Haggard at about the same time wrote two novels called "She" and "Ayesha, The Return of She".  Although these novels were not sexual they portrayed a women with seemly limitless power.  As in the second book she contemplates ruling China and seems to have the power to rule the world if she wanted to.  In these books she was undone by her love for an attractive man, though perhaps this had to be added to make the books acceptable to the society of the time.

The Goddess archetype was also changing other men's sexual behavior in this period.  The common image of the Victorian prostitute in England is of a very downtrodden powerless women.  Yet this wasn't true for all of them, at the same time there were very successful prostitutes who became very wealthy and powerful, like the infamous "Skittles".  She got her name by threatening men that; "she would knock them down like a bunch of skittles".  It seems that her aggressive nature made her very popular among rich and powerful men of the time who would happy grovel to her.  In spite of the fact she came from the lower classes.  Her great popularity even allowed her to become a fashion leader. As young upper class Victorian Women would copy her dress styles and even her behavior.

In the 1950s I remember reading a book that commented on the strange fact that many men going to prostitutes only wanted to do the prostitute's housework and to be ordered to do it.  Today with the increasingly popularity of the Dominatrix this behavior is becoming more understandable.  As more and more men admit to being sexually excited by Dominant Women.

The Dominant Women has also did have popular appeal in films.  What is remarkable about the Hollywood films of the 1930s and 40s is the popularity of powerful women like Betty Davis, Joan Crawford, Mae West, Marlene Dietrich, Katharine Hepburn and Barbara Stanwyck.  The powerful characters these actresses portrayed were far ahead of their time and must of presented a powerful role model for ordinary women of the time.  Then it seems the Hollywood films were subjected to more rigorous censorship and these powerful woman disappeared from Hollywood films, in the 1950s and 60s and only slowly returning in more recent times.

Where the Goddess archetype has had the greatest influence is in the individual relationships between women and men.  In the 19th century it was normal for men in marriage to be the dominant partner and there was a strong social stigma against him if he wasn't.  Legally he was entitled to beat his wife with a stick and have his "conjugal rights". This means his wife wasn't legally entitled to refuse her husband sex and he was allowed to use violence to get his way.  At the beginning of the 21st century we now see a big change as woman can have her partner charged with rape or assault if he attempted to do this.  Also it is now far more acceptable for men to no longer be the dominant partner, and among the  younger generation it seems to be more common place that the women is more dominant.  There is also now a increasingly number of househusbands where the traditional roles of the sexes has been completely reversed.

So it seems that the Goddess archetype is influencing us all on the political, religious, social and sexual levels.  There is now not a part of life that the Goddess archetype in not influencing and changing our world.  Even ironically in fundamentalist Churches where you have strong dominant women upholding, "family values" and attacking the rights of women to have abortions.

Now we are seeing signs that the Goddess influencing the minds of women in a different way to allow progress to continue.   The demand by Feminists for equality during the 20th century was very effective in giving women more power, but now equality has been nearly achieved it is becoming a hindrance to further progress.  This requires the Goddess to plant in the minds of people that it is acceptable for women to demand dominance over men and not just equality.  This is very difficult to accept for many older women who fought for equality in the 20th century but there are signs that for the younger generation dominance over men is more acceptable to them.

Men also have to change, many men still very much see Female Dominant as only a sexual fantasy.  Though by exploring this fantasy it has brought about a fundamental change within them.  The next stage will be in living this fantasy 24/7 which many men are starting to do.

This then means we are helpless in the face of this returning archetype, because she works on our emotions and unconscious minds. Already people during the 20th century have found social change too fast to cope with as the Goddess archetype increases in power and influence.  She is able to override the efforts of conservative and right wing politicians to stop the rate of change and return us to the certainties of patriarchy.  While the power of the Christian Church is continually being eroded because they continue to dare to challenge the power of the Goddess archetype.  The same is becoming true for Islam where many of its mullahs are becoming increasingly violence and fanatical in the face of  "western influences".   This has created oppressive governments in many Islam countries which in the long run is counter productive.  As normal people will in time revolt against the oppression of fundamental Islam.   This is already happening in places like Iran as the common people are now demanding a more freedom and liberty.  It seems that in Islamic countries where the extremists are not in control like Egypt, Malaya and Libya, women are now starting to organize themselves and demanding the freedoms western women enjoy.  This is why the Islamic clergy fear and hate the west as western influences are undermining patriarchal power in their countries. 

Patriarchy only became possible because the Goddess archetype moved into the background allowing men to rule.  She has now decided to return and there is nothing that can be done to stop Her.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The Natural Dominance Of Women

By William Bond

If you take a cork and hold it underwater it is very easy to hold it down but it will only stay there while you keep holding it in that position.  If at any time you arm gets tied or you get fed up with keeping the cork underwater and let go.  The cork will automatically rise to the top.  This concept gives a good metaphor of what is happening today in the politics of Female power.

For anyone who has read the history of patriarchy over the last five thousand years what it very striking is the great efforts needed to keep Women powerless.   Up until the end of the 19th century, there were laws to ensure that women couldn't own any property or wealth. As the law stated that everything a woman had was either owned by her father or husband and the law also make it very difficult for any woman to inherit property.  Women were also barred from all jobs and professions except being a housewife, servant or prostitute.  So Women were unable to acquire any wealth of power in her own right.  Husbands were also encouraged to dominate their wives, who had to swear to obey there husbands when they were married.  The law even gave husbands the right to beat their wives with either a stick or whip.

In other cultures the laws oppressing women were even more strict than in the western world. It was traditional for the Somalis people of Somalia, Kenya, Ethiopia and Djibouti for a bride to start married life with a flogging from their husbands.  It seems the newly wedded husband would wait for her in the bridal chamber with a whip in his hand.  This was also true with the Sifon people of Tibet, who traditionally would again start of married life with the husband whipping his bride.

Yet we are taught at school and in our history books that men have always been the dominant sex going back to early Stone age.  The irony is that if it is natural for men to be the dominant sex why do then men had to create very oppressive laws and customs against Women?  If it is natural for men to be the dominant sex then they shouldn't need any laws, custom or propaganda to keep their place as the dominant sex.  For instance they only reason way we have laws against stealing is because many people do steal.  If people didn't steal there would be no reason to have laws against this behavior.  The same is true of customs and traditions.  The custom of marriage with people swearing to be true to each other is only needed because people do tend to have sex outside of marriage.  If pair bonding was completely natural for
human beings then we wouldn't need customs like marriage, enforced by laws and social censure.

This then means that oppressive laws and customs to keep women in a subservient position suggests that it is not natural for women to be the submissive sex.  If it was natural for men to be the dominant sex then there would be no reason for men to have oppressive laws and customs to keep women in bondage.

If you think about it, from the time the original Aryian invaders conquered Matriarchal communities in southern Europe to the start of Christianity and Islam was about 3,000 years.   This means the Patriarchs needed 3,000 years of brainwashing all men and Women into believing that our Creator was a male, that sex, childbirth, and menstruation was sinful or dirty and that women was inferior to men. This suggests that Women were held in such high regard in ancient times that the original Patriarchal invaders with all the advantages of violence and intimidation, still took thousands of years to overcome the power of Women.

If we compared this with what is happening today where Women for a position of complete powerlessness in the 19th century has in just over a 100 years gained near equality with men.  We can see that patriarchal men have had to put in a enormous effort into subduing Women. We can now see Women rapidly rise to power once again. So it is like a holding a cork underwater.  It is easy to hold the cork down, but once you let go the cork rises to the surface.  Patriarchy could only keep Women down while it was actively suppressing them, and when the pressure was release we know find Women are naturally moving back to ruling society once again. This suggests to me, that it is probably natural for human beings to be ruled by Women.

Not only has Women gain political power over the last hundred years but the relationship between men and Women are also changing rapidly. With the undermining of the many customs, beliefs and social conventions that men are the dominant sex, the personal relationships between men and women are rapidly changing.  It is now more common place for Women to openly claim they are the head of the household and we even now have house husbands.  While sexually things are also changing, from very tiny beginnings during the early 1970s the FemDom movement has grown steadily and strongly.

It has been patriarchal religions like Christianity and Islam that has been in the forefront oppressing Women.  Even today extreme Islam countries try to force Women to wear facial screens and discourage female education.  Restrictions like this wouldn't be needed if men didn't fear the power of Women.   In the past, Christianity used extreme violence against Women.  In the infamous Witch hunts of the Medieval age the vast majority of millions of people who were tortured and burnt alive were Women.  Suggesting again a real fear of Women becoming too powerful.

With the ending of oppressive laws and customs throughout the 20th century women have quickly gained near equality with men.  I know to us a hundred years might seen a long time but in historical terms it is very quick for such a far reaching social change.  If this rate of progress for Women is to continue during the 21st century then clearly Women will be ruling the world in another hundred years time.

What is clear is that men can only become the dominant sex by enforcing through violence and propaganda oppressive laws and customs against Women.  This means that it is not natural for men to be the dominant sex if he has to put so much effort into keeping Women down. If we get rid of all these artificial laws and customs created by patriarchal men and follow our natural instincts then Women will naturally become the rulers of our World.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Look Who's Barefoot in the Kitchen


By Michelle Conlin - Business Week Online  


You could say Doug Wilson is the sultan of savvy dining in Dallas. The 35-year-old can get his family of five in and out of Furr's Cafeteria--where he and his wife lean toward the meat bar and his kids prefer the seven colors of Jell-O--for under $30. The deal he's got at Marshall's BBQ and Souper Salads is even better: $20. Avoiding places like Olive Garden and TGI Friday's, with their $45 tabs, is one of the many ways Wilson and his wife, Lisa, survive on just one annual paycheck of $40,000.

Her paycheck, that is. Wilson used to spend his days soaked in sweat managing road repavings in the 110-degree Texas sun. Now, he does the housework, runs the errands, and scours the city for bargains in his '86 Ford LTD. "This is the hardest job I've ever had," Wilson says.

Link to entire article: Look Who's Barefoot in the Kitchen

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The Wisdom of Women, and why men will never catch up

From the British Daily Mail 

Women have long asserted that they are cleverer than men. Now Scientists claim to have proved that their intellectual superiority lasts a lifetime.

Research on 600 85 year olds showed the women were much quicker and sharper than then men - despite the female candidates generally having a much lower standard of education.

The results suggest the difference between the male and the female brains is biological, not social, say the researchers.

Tests have already shown that girls do better at school than boys and continue to do so through university.

The latest study theorises that women's brains simply carry on performing for longer because they live longer and so need to be mentally active at a greater age.

Doctors carried out memory and recognition word and number tests on every 85 year old who was willing in the Dutch town of Leiden.

Thirty-three per cent of women, compared to 28 per cent of men had good speed in their replies while four in ten women but three in ten men had a good memory.

The results are published in the June edition of British Medical Association's Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Here's A Shock for Women

By LYSIANE GAGNON

The next generation of Quebec women might face a difficult love life. According to the September figures on student enrolment unearthed by La Presse reporter Andre Noel, in a few years the province will be filled With high-paid, ambitious, professional women. Across the dance floor will be a large group of losers -- uneducated men stuck in small, low-paying jobs.

More and more women -- and fewer and fewer men -- enroll in universities. In 1991, 57 per cent of the students at Universite Laval in Quebec City were female. By 1996, the proportion was up to 60 per cent; now it is 63 per.

This fall, the Universite de Montreal has twice as many female students as male. Women make up 80 per cent of the medical school's student body. The same imbalance can be found in most departments, including dental, veterinarian and law school. Most criminals are male, but when they're brought into court, they'll be surrounded by female lawyers and judges and observed by female criminologists and psychologists. The only areas where male students remain predominant are science, math and business; but Even there, the gap is shortening.

The good news is that women are becoming more educated. The bad news is that the proportion of men with university degrees is decreasing every year.

What is especially distressing is that the trend is even stronger in younger cohorts. In the CEGEPs (the community colleges that are compulsory for university entry), 57.5 per cent of the 64,000 newly enrolled students are female. The gap is especially wide in the programs that lead to university; there, women form a 60-per-cent majority. Even in the three-year technical programs with direct links to the job market, the student body is 56 per cent female.

And women are much more successful. Three out of four female students receive their college diploma, while almost 40 per cent of the male students drop out or fail the exams.

More than half of 17-year-old females -- but only a third of male teenagers -- enroll in a CEGEP. One reason is that boys drop out of high school. The phenomenon is not new, but it's getting more serious.

"So these 16-year-old boys leave school, find a small job and make enough money to buy a car," says Denis Marceau, academic vice-president at the Universite de Sherbrooke. "For a while, they think life is great. It's only later that they realize that you can't do much without a degree."

This is not the kind of world that '60s feminists dreamed of. The idea was to develop a balanced society, where men and women would equally share power and responsibilities, both at home and at work. Instead, what's developing looks like a complete reversal of the old order, with women gaining  full power over men -- something that only radical, man-hating feminists used to wish for. (This also is an eerie reminder of a very distant past, when French Canadian women used to be slightly more educated than men -- at Least they would know how to read and write. Young women often were grade-school teachers, while men were woodcutters or farmers, jobs that didn't require reading skills.)

One wonders where these future high-profile women will find their mate, in a society where well-off, educated men will be a smaller minority than they are today. Will female doctors and corporate lawyers happily settle down with male nurses and mall clerks?

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

MOST POWERFUL WOMEN IN BUSINESS

Trophy Husbands

Arm candy? Are you kidding? While their fast-track wives go to work, stay-at-home husbands mind the kids. They deserve a trophy for trading places.

By Betsy Morris

FORTUNE Magazine

Friday, September 27, 2002

Remember that adage, Behind every great man is a great woman? Well, forget it. As corporate women continue their climb up the ladder, the reverse is increasingly true. At Ford, Xerox, Sun, Schwab, Verizon, J.P. Morgan Chase, Coca-Cola-almost everywhere you look in the upper ranks of the FORTUNE 500-it could be the woman wearing the pants and the man minding hearth and home. Call him what you will: househusband, stay-at-home dad, domestic engineer. But credit him with setting aside his own career by dropping out, retiring early, or going part-time so that his wife's career might flourish and their family might thrive. Behind a great woman at work, there is often a great man at home. He is the new trophy husband.

Link to article: Trophy Husbands






More Articles
Mainstream Research: Articles about Female Supremacy
and Societal Evolution

(Feel free to e-mail me any articles about Female Domination and Female Supremacy
so others can learn and benefit)