Female Supremacy Articles


A CONVERSATION WITH BRYAN SYKES:
Is Genghis Khan an Ancestor? Mr. DNA Knows

By CLAUDIA DREIFUS

The New York Times

June 8, 2004

Wherever Dr. Bryan Sykes travels, he carries little swabs for collecting genetic material from strangers.

Dr. Sykes, a human genetics professor at Oxford University and a science adviser to the British House of Commons, loves showing people the astonishing history hidden in their DNA. Zip! A quick swipe of the
inner cheek. Three weeks later, a report arrives from Dr. Sykes's laboratory with surprising news that you have, say, a West African ancestor or a kinship to Genghis Khan.

At the moment, Dr. Sykes is collecting swabs from everyone he meets named "MacDonald," to determine the migratory patterns of each branch of the Scottish clan. A reporter was astonished to discover that she
has a common ancestor with "Otzi," the prehistoric Ice Man of northern Italy.

Playful projects of this sort might obscure the fact that Dr. Sykes, 56, is one of the world's most acclaimed geneticists. In the 1980's, he and his Oxford colleague, Robert E. Hedges, discovered ways to extract
DNA from fossilized bones; ever since, he has been using these methods to unravel the genetic history of humans.

His book about the origins of modern European women, "The Seven Daughters of Eve," was an international best seller in 2001. His second work, "Adam's Curse: A Future Without Men," published in April, is a
discouraging look at men and their fragile Y chromosome, which he sees as "a graveyard of rotting genes."

Q. "Adam's Curse" reads almost like a polemic against the Y chromosome. What do you have against it?

  A. I don't have a high opinion of it, do I? I'm certain I couldn't have written this book had I been a woman. I would have been accused of having a feminist agenda, and I don't. In some passages, I feel
distinctly sorry for the Y chromosome. However, if you trace the Y chromosome's fingerprints back through human history, you see that it reports some very unpleasant behavior. Take Genghis Khan's Y
chromosome, which is now found in 16 million men in Central Asia. It started as a single copy from the man himself in the 12th century. What drove this? Well, when he conquered a territory, he killed the men and
systematically inseminated the most attractive women. A thousand years later, his Y chromosome has survived and proliferated, which is sexual selection on a very grand scale.

In fact, whenever geneticists look at evolutionary diagrams, they see some frequently occurring Y chromosomes, not closely related to others. These genetic "explosions" are the legacy of a relatively few very successful men who have supplanted the Y chromosomes of their contemporaries, as Genghis Khan did. My guess is that the Y chromosome of every living man has spent at least one generation in the testis of a warlord.

Q. Still, you write that the Y chromosome is flawed and doomed, and predict that it will disappear. Why?

A. Because, unlike all other chromosomes, the Y doesn't get a chance to mix with any other chromosomes. It doesn't get to exchange DNA with the others, the opportunity which sex itself provides, which is a sad irony since it is the Y that differentiates the male from female in the first place. It gets passed on from one male to another, and it cannot repair mutations through genetic recombination.

  Moreover, the Y chromosome is subject to a higher mutation rate than other chromosomes because it is perennially confined to the male germ line. Male germ line cells and their DNA divide very, very fast to keep
up with sperm production. Most mutations occur when DNA divides. So the Y is intrinsically unstable. By my estimate, in about 5,000 generations - 125,000 years - male fertility will be roughly 1 percent of what it
is now. Mutations in Y chromosomes are already known to reduce male fertility. So I see a slow decline in men's fertility until, eventually, men can no longer breed naturally.

Q. Should we be worried now?

A. There are more immediate problems in life, although 125,000 years is just a fraction of a second in the overall evolution in our species. And there will be things that can be done; we could take the essential
genes from the Y chromosome and put them on regular chromosomes, out of harm's way.

  A more radical possibility involves eliminating males from the reproductive process. Japanese researchers have just created a mouse from fusion of two eggs. On the face of it, the mouse developed normally. There was no male involvement at all. The triumph of this experiment is that it overcame an inbuilt system called genetic imprinting, which hitherto had prevented mammals from reproducing by parthenogenesis.

  I feel sure that humans will one day be able to reproduce by the fusion of two eggs. The children will always be girls, and they will have the same genetic mix as any other girl. This is very feasible, and I think will happen in my lifetime. Importantly: This is not reproductive cloning because you are not making a genetic copy of a person. Here you are creating an entirely new individual with a mixture of genes from two parents, though both of them are female. I could see where two homosexual women, who want to become the biological parents of a child together, might consider doing this.

Q. Why don't we hear much anymore about a "gay gene"?

  A. You are referring to research on gay men and their families published in 1993 by Dean H. Hamer and his team, who located on the X chromosome a gene controlling male homosexuality. Though this was
subsequently replicated by Hamer, another study along similar lines failed to confirm the association. Since then, no one has tried to take the "gay gene" any further.

  On purely genetic grounds, I never liked the idea of a "gay gene" since it is very hard to see how such a gene could have survived and spread among our ancestors since it is bound to have been eliminated if
homosexual men had fewer children than their heterosexual contemporaries. Genes that even slightly reduce their chances of getting passed on to the next generation have very short careers.

Q. You are known as a founder of bioarchaeology. What is this?

  A. It's a name for something my colleagues and I have been doing since the 1980's; we use a range of biological techniques on archaeological material so that we can learn more about past populations.

  The field came to prominence because we've been able to use these techniques to isolate and amplify DNA from very old bones. I've gotten to work on the frozen body of the 9,000-year-old Ice Man who was found
in the Italian Alps. Through DNA testing, we discovered he was related to a good friend of mine!

Beyond the interesting science, what has fascinated me about this work is how many people have grown interested in the genetics of their ancestors. People are absolutely fascinated by what the mitochondria,
with its maternally inherited DNA, and the Y chromosome can reveal. As genetic studies have advanced, the Y chromosome has revolutionized genealogy because of the strong correlation between Y chromosomes and surnames. For instance, I've tested hundreds of people named "Sykes" and found that roughly 70 percent of us have the same Y chromosome, and therefore, must be descended from one man.
_________________________________________________________________________________________


The End of Mankind
Why Women Don't Deserve Men

by Anna Weiss
Red Letter Daze Contributor

The Cornell Daily Sun

May 6, 2004

Men have ruled since the beginning of time, and what we have to show for it are the mistakes they have made. People are unhappy, hungry, tired, stressed, and sick of the general situation. What is needed is a revolution of sorts -- an upheaval that will change society for the better -- and a plan that can be executed in a relatively short period of time. A brutal and extreme stroke of feminism is the only way to rectify the situation. It will show the males of our society exactly how much power women yield and who really deserves to dominate. In truth, at this point in our history, men are fairly unnecessary as they do little that women cannot do to the same extent or even better. If women demonstrate their solidarity and assert their power, the world will reap the benefits.

In the past, men have made the technological advances, worked to put food on the table, and run the government, but ironically enough, it is females who now achieve higher exam scores and handle stress better than men, especially when they are grouped with other women.

If women do not experience a decrease in anxiety when men are involved, and men do not experience it in any situation, then perhaps a separation of the sexes is in order.

Eliminating male distractions and reducing stress could indeed increase female productivity. It seems only logical that women should use this for the betterment of society by calling for a separation of the sexes in everyday life. Females could then show their power and finally affirm their supremacy.

But how will women first assert their dominance and still manage to keep men happy and subdued? Well, let us use the age-old trick of making them think it was their idea in the first place. Let them think that they decided they were working too much and not spending enough time at home. Let them integrate this with the notion that it would be a perfect opportunity for the women in their lives to work towards the equality they desire by becoming the primary breadwinners of the family. Once females take over the majority of the labor in the workforce, they will hold more sway over government policies. Slowly but surely, women will infiltrate the government, and gain elected positions with the support of the sisterhood. A total coup follows. Using the power that has been recently acquired, women will have not only the confidence, but also the authority to command men to do as they please. Women now dominate.

And this plan is generous. Frankly, males are not even necessary for the continuation of the species at this point. There is enough sperm in sperm banks to continue to reproduce indefinitely. Further, considering that men are the main contributors to the world problems we face such as alcoholism, domestic violence, and war, the easiest and most obvious remedy to our problems would be to remove men from the society. But we are the charitable sex and will instead only remove them from the dominating class.

So what does that leave them to do? I propose that men be kept to themselves, not interacting with women unless the women deem it necessary for their own well-being. The men should primarily become tools for the women's enjoyment. Although women can now reproduce without having a male partner by in vitro fertilization, it would be a shame to call an end to such a wonderful pastime as sex. There is no need. Instead, women would be encouraged to collect the men in their lives and keep them in separate quarters. These women would then assert their supremacy through a final stroke of sexual domination. At this point, the dominatrix in each proper lady must be unleashed, as men become virtual sex slaves to women. Males will no longer control the action in the bedroom by being 'on top' the majority of the time and satisfying their own needs before the woman's. No, men will submit. Ideally though, the men would be happy with this situation, after all, they are getting what they seem to always want: sex.

I am, however, getting ahead of myself. The major focus should be women alone increasing productivity on a global scale, reducing stress for all, and eliminating the problems that men have brought to the world such as war and infantile disputes. With women as the dominant sex, the world would have a chance to heal itself. Happiness could rule, productivity in the home and workplace could thrive, and women could finally be 'on top'.
_________________________________________________________________________________________

WOMEN ARE MORE THAN A MARKET,
THEY’RE A SOURCE OF PROFIT

Turn your women customers into “Town Criers” for your business.

Story by Flintridge Consulting

Because women are as a whole more loyal and willing to pay for good service and quality, they make ideal customers for small businesses who often surpass their corporate competitors in these areas.

As consumers, women buy or influence at least 80 percent of all household spending.  That includes 51 percent of consumer electronics and 75 percent of all over-the-counter drugs.

In the corporate arena, they are increasingly more visible as purchasing managers, an area long dominated by men.  In fact, the number of female registrants at national purchasing shows has doubled over the past five years and is expected to double again by 2005.

A Huge Market

In the small business-to-small business venue, women also make up an important market segment.  Estimates put the number of female owned business at 9.1 million generating $3.6 trillion in sales annually and employing 27.5 million people – more than all Fortune 500 companies combined—in America.

“Women represent a huge untapped market for most business owners, big and small,” explains Barbara G. Stanbridge, President of National Association of Women Business Owners (NAWBO).  She argues that women, in particular, can make great customers for small businesses because they are very loyal and apt to let their friends know when they have found something worthwhile.

Hence the reason many experts think satisfied women customers can grow your small business and expand profits.

Many professional women believe small businesses need not focus on the differences in marketing to their gender.  Others disagree, but all concur that marketing to women requires some specific tweaking of the message and delivery parameters to be truly successful.

When marketing to women there are some dos and don’ts that demand careful thought and consideration.  As with most marketing, it always helps if you take the time to stop, think, research and then act.

Anticipate Her Needs

Women have many different responsibilities and time is usually a woman’s most precious commodity.  Knowing this, consider how you can orient your business towards that need.  Ask yourself, how can my product or service be more available to her and anticipate her needs in relationship to your offering.

An example is the small bookstore at the commuter train station used by Leslie Grossman, of MA, Inc., in New York.  Grossman has over 20 years of experience in marketing and is the President of CMA, which specializes in helping businesses market to women.

“Every work day I go by the same bookstore as I am coming and going from work,” Grossman continues, “but they are never open at those times.  So where do you think I end up buying my books?  Amazon.com and Barnes and Noble because they are open when I need them to be.  I would prefer to buy from the small bookseller, but if they are not open when it is convenient for me, it is hard for me to give them my business.”

Grossman echoes the sentiment of many female consumers.  They would rather do business with a smaller, independent firm studies by the National Foundation of Women Business Owners indicate.  Unfortunately, many smaller businesses miss out on women as potential customers, because they do not make themselves or their products convenient for women.  The reason for this ranges from location to operating hours to poor service.

The Importance of Service Orientation

The next do is to make sure your business is service oriented.  In research conducted by New York University, “responsive service” was the top criteria for women business travelers in selecting a hotel.

Even today, many women business travelers feel ignored or at best tolerated in hotels, restaurants and other public places.  Because they still see this happening, nine out of 10 women indicated responsive service was the most important factor in their choice of lodgings.

In comparison, 65 percent of men ranked location as the most important factor followed by responsive service.

Women report that many companies give lip service to customer satisfaction.  Indeed, “service” has become such a common mantra that the word has become a cliché.  Many experts believe the key to customer service involves providing something that’s unexpected, preferably with a smile.

Others suggest focusing on paying attention to the individual, particularly if she is a woman.  Attention, by the way, that includes respect and recognition of her self worth.

A business that really wants to serve their female customers should remember common courtesy can go a long way.  Behind every sale, there is a real person who decided to buy your product over the competitors’.  When you personally thank that person for choosing your company, you turn a customer into an evangelist.  This is also more likely to occur from a woman customer than a male user.

Maintain a “Smart” Database

Another solution is to maintain a customer database, keeping track of their likes and dislikes.  That way you can let them know if there is anything that would be of interest to them like sales, new products, special events, etc.  However, when you do this, remember to make certain you get the gender correct.  Nothing upsets a customer more than to be called a “Ms” or “Mr.” when the opposite is the case.

Sometimes, going the extra-mile means listening to women.  Ask your female customers what they want.  Some sample questions.

Do they want you to keep longer hours?
Do they want technical support available on weekends?
Do they want you to broaden your product line or services to they can get everything in one place?

When you communicate with her on a one-on-one basis you go a long ways toward building a relationship and earning her loyalty.

Sadly, many companies focus their service on two events: before the sale or when problems come up.  Many businesses miss all sorts of opportunities to serve their customers during daily operations.

Nordstrom has a well-known customer service program that is simply part of its day-to-day operations.  Salespeople are encouraged to call customers and let them know about special events or items of interest.  Each salesperson in the company has a business card he or she can give to any customer, to encourage direct communications. During the first days of a large sale they open several hours earlier.  Also, no matter how small the item, they will happily contact other stores for availability and have the item directly mailed to you.  Now that’s service!

The last do is very straight-forward: get involved in your community.  Women like to be involved in the world around them and like to do business with people who are involved as well.  Getting involved with organizations, such as National Association of Women Business Owners (NAWBO), or other local professional organizations, can be a great way to meet women business owners.

This leads, however, to the first don’t in marketing to women.  “Whatever you do, please don’t just write a check!” admonishes Grossman.  “One corporation was a very large sponsor of NAWBO and were offering something special to NAWBO members.  So they put together a marketing packet and set it out.  The packet had a long cover letter, which mentioned at the end that there was a special offer for members.  They used the same marketing materials they use all the time and they did not target them to a female audience.  The whole campaign was essentially a wash because they didn’t want to take the time to do it right.”

Lessons to learn from this Fortune 500:  Take your time to make your partnership with the organization work for you, get to know their real needs and make sure you craft the piece specifically to address what is important to them.  Remember that B2B is not the same as B2Women in all areas.  Women are more apt to want to be educated about the offered product or service and are inclined to be patient when buying.

There are four things a woman purchaser is more apt to require during the sales process than her male counterpart:

More detailed information.
Specific pricing quotes, including tax and service contracts.
References (A woman is twice as likely as a man to check references.)
Return policies and guarantees.

Women Take More Chances

By the same token, a woman more often than a man will take a chance on a new product or service if it involves reduction in time or money with a specific payback period.

A recent survey by a large software company revealed that women by a 2-1 margin were more included to read the offering material in a new product than men.  Their special marketing hotline had three women callers for every male respondent asking questions about this new product.

The potential business that women represent for any small business is impressive.  It is not every market that represents $3.6 trillion sales.  Taking the time to carefully market to women is the first step to getting in on this enormous market.

Remember also that they are a niche market and should be sold to like any other sector, with care and understanding and respect.


MARKETING TO WOMEN

What could your company do with a customer base made up of 85 percent of all United States families?  Probably increase your profit and expand your business, and then increase your profit some more.  This is exactly what you could do if you focused your marketing strategies to target women.  Statistically, women are the primary purchasing agent in 85 percent of U.S. households, holding in their hands more than two trillion dollars.

The National Foundation for Women Business Owners (NFWBO) agrees.  NFWBO is dedicated to showing the world that women are a force to be reckoned with.  According to the NFWBO, when purchasing such items as television and cable services, clothing, insurance policies and Internet service providers, business women are the primary decision-makers in their households fully two-thirds or more of the time.

Just take a look at the stats*:

Women are the primary consumer decision maker in 85% of all households.
Women are expected to acquire 94% of the growth in U.S. private wealth between now and 2010.
Women make 69% of all household health decision.
Women purchase 74% of all NBA and NFL apparel, and are contributing to a 10.3% increase in soccer equipment sales.
Women make 75% of the decisions about new homes.
Women make 81% of the decisions about groceries.
Women will make up 60% of the online population by 2005.
Women will account for 62% of all workers by 2005.

Some of the following information shows that companies also need to know how to market to women.

80% of women employees and 74% of women business owners combine different shopping tasks into one trip.

One-third of women say that the effect of a product on the environment is a major influence in purchasing decisions, and one in fiveagree that the social responsibility of a company is a major influence.

Women reflect that advertising is the primary source of information on products, while coupons do not influence purchase decisions.

So if you would like a large piece of the pie U.S. women might be willing to hand over, think about marketing to women.  It could change your profit margins forever.
_________________________________________________________________________________________


The Queens of Beer:
Women Make Gains in Brewing Scene

By Stephanie Montell

BrewingTechniques

Although men dominate the brewing industry, history tells us that brewing was traditionally a woman's job. Today, women are slowly returning to brewing and making significant strides (not to mention good beer) in the process.

As small-scale brewing becomes more and more popular, it has become evident that women both appreciate and brew good beer. Women, however, represent a small percentage of all home brewers. But some signs suggest that times are changing and with change often comes controversy.

One case in point is the Queen of Beer homebrew competition, held 16 April l994 in Placerville, California. Although the event was like any other national homebrew competition, it had one unusual entry criterion - it was for women only. Organizers Beth Sangeri, president of HAZE homebrew club, and Donna Bettencourt, president of Gold County Brewers Association of Sacramento, intended to encourage women to brew independently and to become more active participants in the brewing community. The event not only succeeded in that goal but also in bringing to the fore some sensitive issues associated with women in the brewing community.

With 55 participants, Sangeri thought the first-time event had a "strong and promising turnout." In fact, she is currently planning next year's competition and hopes to make it an annual event.

The Queen of Beer competition is interesting not only because it is a women-only event but because of people's reactions to it. An announcement of the event on the Home Brew Digest, an online mailing list for brewers, sparked spirited discussion. Some viewed the competition as "sexist," "self-defeating," and "patronizing." Some complained that men and women must compete on the same level if "they are to gain the respect and equality they desire and deserve." Others viewed the event as an act of exclusivity.
Writing in response to the hubbub the event sparked on the Digest, Bettencourt pointed out that many AHA-sanctioned competitions are restricted to a much smaller number of home brewers than this women-only event. There are club-only competitions, local-area competitions, and even competitions limited to deaf or hearing-impaired brewers (the Grateful Deaf homebrew club's successful brewing competition earlier this year). Exclusivity is nothing new to homebrew competitions.

Sangeri said the controversy surrounding the competition was due to lack of understanding. The Queen of Beer competition, she says, was not created because "women are no better or no worse than men in brewing beer." It was created as a forum where women could brew independently from their boyfriends or husbands.

The idea originated when Sangeri tried to ask a group of male brewers some brewing questions. Their advice began with, "What your husband should do is . . ." Their response reflected the stereotype that only men brew beer. Sangeri believes there is a "silent group of women brewers" that need encouragement to start actively participating in brewing competitions. She knows of some women who are intimidated from entering competitions because generally the events are "male dominated and sometimes fraternity-like."
"The more people that brew, the better," she said. If the Queen of Beer competition reached some women who would not normally have entered a competition, for whatever reason, then Sangeri believes the event served its purpose.

PUTTING IT IN PERSPECTIVE

Is brewing beer a "guy thing"? Maybe it is perceived as such in today's society, but a look back through history shows that brewing began as a woman's job.

According to beer historian Alan Eames, the religious myths of ancient societies credit the creation of beer to women. For the Pharaonic Egyptians, the goddess Hathor invented beer. She was worshiped throughout the dynastic ages as the "queen of drunkness and dance and the inventress of beer" (1). For the ancient Fins, however, ale was created by three women: Osmotor, Kapo, and Kalevatar. While trying to prepare for a wedding feast, Kalevatar combined saliva from a bear with wild honey, added it to beer, and created the gift of ale (1).

In Europe, female brewers were the norm. In England during the 1700s, a survey found 78% of licensed brewers were women (1). Traditionally, it was a woman's job to brew beer for the household. In fact, certain laws stated that the tools used in brewing were solely the woman's property (2). Things changed in medieval times, when monasteries began brewing beer on a larger scale for passing travelers. Gradually, women became less and less involved in brewing. The industrial revolution transferred brewing from the home to the marketplace. Men began claiming local taverns as their domain, and women began drinking less beer (3). Alewives were replaced by male brewers, and brewers have tended to be male ever since.

FEMALE BREWERS TODAY

It has taken women some time to regain a place in the brewing industry. In today's workplace, women often face barriers that prevent their participation, and the brewing industry is no exception. With prevailing stereotypes, sexist advertising, and lack of experience with female brewers, the industry includes few women.

This trend, however, is slowly changing. Some women make successful careers as brewers. They know that making good beer is independent of sex and show the brewing community by way of example.

One such individual is Teri Fahrendorf, brewmaster at the Steelhead Brewery & Cafe in Eugene, Oregon. Fahrendorf notes that her present position is the result of her brewing ability, not because she is a woman. She believes experience and education are essential qualifications of a professional brewer. Fahrendorf knew she had the homebrew experience but realized that to advance to a professional level she needed a brewing diploma. So, she spent a term at the Siebel Institute of Technology in Chicago. "Without a degree and lacking professional experience, I knew I'd have a hard time getting hired."

Jennifer Talley of Salt Lake City's Squatter's Pub & Brewery understands how lack of experience can hinder job searches. Although she, too, had homebrew experience, it took her five months to land her job at Squatter's. Talley convinced the management to let her work for free, and after she proved what she could do they let her stay. She worked as an apprentice under the owner and is now an assistant brewer. Talley believes the reason why more women don't enter the brewing industry is because stereotypes perpetuate the perception that "women just can't brew."

Fahrendorf knows first-hand the stereotypes that women can face when looking for a job. She recalled that many pub owners wouldn't even interview her. In l989, there was no precedent of women brewing in micobreweries. One owner asked, "Can you lift a 50-lb sack over your head?" and "Can you carry a full half barrel up a flight of stairs?" When she told the owner she could not, he told her that she couldn't interview for the job because he required those physical abilities in all his brewers.

Male or female, no one should be required to lift heavy objects over the head or hand-carry a l60-lb barrel up a flight of stairs. Such practices are an open invitation to serious injury. Fahrendorf believes, however, that the pub owners she encountered didn't know what to do with her application, because women just did not apply for brewing positions at that time.

Now the precedent has been set, and many women brew professionally. How receptive is the industry?
Fahrendorf and Talley agreed they have received nothing but respect from other brewers in the field. Although Fahrendorf believes she is accepted in the field, she is also aware the stereotypes that women cannot brew still persist in the United States. She recalled several stories in which customers at the Steelhead were surprised to find a female brewmaster. She hopes that female professional brewers will become more active and visible to help counter such stereotypes. "The more stereotypes that are broken, the more likely we will see women in the field."

THE ADVERTISING MAELSTROM

Beer advertising targets men, and in the process it tends to reinforce popular stereotypes about women. Laure Pomianowski, head brewer at the Sante Fe Brewing Co. in Galisteo, New Mexico, believes sexist advertising limits women's entry into the brewing industry. Pomianowski was in the engineering industry for seven years before becoming a professional brewer. She believes that more women would brew, but "the commercials and advertising are so sexist, it turns women off. Women are conditioned to tune out and in turn don't participate." Pomianowski wonders how women can relax surrounded by posters of "scantily clad women" on the walls of the brewery?

How damaging can these posters be to women who work in the brewing industry? In l992, five women filed sexual harassment lawsuits against the Stroh Brewery Co. (Detroit, Michigan). They charged that the portrayal of women in its beer advertising had come to symbolize the company's workplace attitude toward its female employees. Women at the St. Paul, Minnesota, bottling plant described being subjected to lewd and sexist comments and behavior, physical intimidation, and abuse by male co-workers. The women said the atmosphere was a result of the company's "sexist, degrading" advertising of the Swedish Bikini Team with Old Milwaukee beer (4).

Consensus among female brewers holds that the Swedish Bikini Team was a huge step backward for women in the brewing industry. Fahrendorf joked there are no role models for women in brewing "except the Swedish Bikini Team." She and Pomianowski believe that the women in the posters only further the stereotype that beer is a man's drink brewed by men.

ESTABLISHING A NEW ORDER

How can women overcome these barriers? A good first step is for women to actively and visibly participate in the brewing community. The more women participate by consuming beer, by home brewing, by competing, or by applying for jobs at breweries, the more stereotypes will be broken.

Basic experience and education are the obvious starting points for any brewer; home brewing experience is necessary for an entry-level position at most breweries. The next step for women might be to join a homebrew club, which offers several benefits. Meeting other brewers and listening to their experience is a great way of learning, and the presence of women involved with clubs plants seeds of acceptance.

Women have nothing to lose and everything to gain by participating in the brewing community. In the words of Jennifer Talley, "Women can brew, it's just pure motivation."
_________________________________________________________________________________________

Cleaning up in China: Women Take Charge

The numbers tell the story: since economic reforms began in 1978, the Chinese economy has quadrupled in size to become the 7th largest in the world. Growth has been especially strong in the last decade, averaging around 9% per year. But this phenomenal growth has come at a price; air quality is being threatened by inefficient fuels in factories and rising vehicle emissions, while serious industrial pollution from untreated effluent is fouling rivers, lakes and coastal waters.

The CIDA-funded Canada-China Cooperation Project in Cleaner Production takes aim at emissions in the pulp and paper, fertilizer, plastics and brewing industries. It provides training and technical assistance to industries and government regulators to implement cleaner production technologies. The objective - to move pollution control from the end of the pipe to the beginning of the process - has already borne fruit. Better production methods have cut costs, increased productivity and reduced pollution in ten demonstration factories.

Spreading the news

The key to the project's success is in its ability to inspire others. Through its website, video productions, case studies, manuals and other publications, new technologies and methods are being disseminated throughout China. Its experts are also helping numerous factories not involved in the pilot program to develop clean production techniques and to share their experiences across the country.

But it isn't just the experts who are spreading the word.

The project contained a specific component to increase the participation of women as workers, technicians and managers. Women received training in process improvement, auditing practices, monitoring of equipment, computers and other technical aspects of their work. They also formed female workers' committees and soon improvements in working conditions, employee facilities and day cares followed. At the same time, gender awareness sessions began to transform the attitudes of both women and men. Women became more confident; they not only applied the new clean production techniques at work, they started taking initiatives on their own to help clean up the environment.

Blazing many trails

"China has its first generation of female generals, female pilots, female tractor drivers and female mountaineers who climbed Mount Everest," says Ms. Hwang Yanli, Director of the Female Workers' Committee at the Wuming Beer Co. Ltd. in Zhoucheng, China, one of the project sites. "But...women still face many restraints. To solve these problems, we need to blaze many trails."

Their newfound interest in clean technology turned out to be the catalyst. Inspired by the Chinese Project Office Manager, Mme. Liang Boqing, the participants at a national workshop on gender equality and development created a new organization, the Women and Environment Network (WEN). The Network quickly became a strong advocate for clean production, and the Project provided both encouragement and financial support to produce public information materials. WEN set up a web page, two of its members wrote a book, "Control of Air Pollution", and representatives visited schools and organized public events such as a street fair during World Environment Day. They've reached thousands of people with their message, including the scientists: last April, they held a Women and Cleaner Production discussion at the Environment Protection Research Institute.

The project's role in encouraging women employees, both at work and outside the workplace, has earned it the Scotiabank Award for International Development. The project's consortium, PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, SNC-Lavalin Environment Inc., and ESSA Technologies Ltd., were recognized for the measures they took to incorporate women's opportunities and gender equality into the design and implementation of the project.
___________________________________________________________________________________________


Interesting Online Poll from Latexdress:

What techniques do you think work best to train a submissive sissy:

Responses
Choices               Votes %

Shaving                   11        18.64% 
Oral pleasure for Mistress 9 15.25% 
Nail painting             8         13.56% 
Growing out of sissy's hair 3   5.08%      
Sissy at Halloween Parties 4  6.78%       
Sissy in public             2        3.39%         
Some body modifications 6   10.17% 
Forced bisexuality        6      10.17% 
Cuckolding               7          11.86% 
Fluffing Mistress' Stud     3      5.08%       

What activities make a sissy boy most submissive?

Responses
Choices        Votes       %

Facesitting           42      18.58% 
CBT                     36      15.93% 
Striptease              6      2.65%      
Strap on play        83     36.73% 
Oral Worship        59     26.11% 

Should a male be allowed to wear male underwear or forced to wear panties all the time:

Responses
Choices                   Votes                 % 

male underwear                  9                 5.59% 
always wearing panties           69          42.86% 
regular wearing of bra and panties  83    51% 

Which forms of make up encourage a sissy to feel more girlie?

Responses
Choices        Votes      %

No make-up       22         3.42% 
Lipstick              87       13.53% 
foundation          54         8.40% 
Powder              51         7.93% 
Blush                63         9.80% 
Eye shadow       71       11.04% 
Eye liner            61         9.49% 
Mascara            71        11.04% 
Perfume            76         11.82% 
Nail polish         87         13.53% 


More Articles